Your Rights to Retrieve a Drone If It Lands On Private Property, Part 2

What If An Irate Property Owner Has Your Drone?

What If An Irate Property Owner Has Your Drone?

Aerial drones are usually reliable, and in the hands of an experienced operator are brought home with sufficient battery power in reserve. However, there may be circumstances when the aircraft can’t be brought home and it lands on someone else’s property. I established in Part 1 that the property owner does not have a lawful claim on your aircraft. In this blog, we review your recovery options in less-than-friendly circumstances.

What Are My Options?

If the property owner refuses to return your aircraft, or allow you to retrieve it, then you should call local law enforcement to intervene. As long as no harm was done, then it’s likely that the property owner will hand over your drone to a law enforcement officer. Although the owner may be reluctant, they may come around after being advised that they face a charge of larceny if they hold onto it. There are several other ways this scenario can play out (such as intentionally destroying your aircraft), but if none turn out favorable to you, then you’ll have to ask for a law enforcement report and proceed with a civil or criminal complaint.

I recently heard of a scenario where a novice was using their drone for low-level spying, which violates state and federal privacy laws. If the property owner gets your drone under these circumstances (using any available means) your claim is going to be an uphill battle.

If your aircraft gets stuck in the owner’s tree or is on their rooftop, then be prepared to pay for a service to come out to retrieve it for you. For example, this may cost you $150 for a tree service to come out, climb the tree, retrieve your drone, and assure the owner that no harm was done to their tree.

Sometimes the best grease is money. If the property owner is annoyed, then you may offer a modest sum for their troubles. Conversely, if the property owner demands a “salvage” fee, then this may be the path of least resistance that gets your aircraft back. Even if the law of ownership is on your side, getting a legal judgment will be costly and take time. In the meantime, you’ll probably have to buy another drone.

There is the unpleasant scenario where your drone damaged property or injured a person (or animal). In such a case, your drone deprived the owner of their full enjoyment of the land and your situation has become a whole lot more complicated. This is why you need a good liability insurance policy.

What if the Property Owner Refuses to Return My Aircraft?

Aerial drones can be expensive, with the value of some in the thousands of dollars. At this price point, a court proceeding may be worth the cost. For less expensive drones, a court proceeding may give you some degree of satisfaction but the cost may exceed the drone’s value. Some property owners are so belligerent that they will destroy your drone. I wish I could be gentler in advising that you may need to be prepared to accept the loss of your drone.

In Any Scenario with Complications, Document Everything and Take Pictures

If your operations require flying over private property, then carry an insurance policy that covers liability AND loss of aircraft. If it goes down, then collect as much information as possible about the circumstances, take pictures, print out your controller’s log files, and take names. When dealing with property owners, always be professional and affirm their rights as well as your own. Even though the law is on your side, the property owner has possession of your drone so carefully assert your rights in the kindest manner possible.

Does an Aerial Drone Pilot have the Right to Fly Over Private Property?

Does This Sign Apply to Aerial Drones?

Does This Sign Apply to Aerial Drones?

There’s an altitude limit at which property owners own their airspace. Above that altitude, it’s owned by the federal government. But regardless of altitude, airborne aircraft are always operating under the jurisdiction of the Federal Aviation Administration.

Federal case law first established property owner’s airspace in 1946 as a minimum altitude of 83 feet in a foundational ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court “United States v. Causby, 328 US 266 (1946).” A navigable airspace boundary was later established by Congress as the minimum altitude for aircraft flights – stated as 500 feet above ground level. Property rights laws generally accept altitudes below the minimum navigable airspace as the airspace owned by private property owners.

To be clear, the FAA has jurisdiction over all airspace above the ground where aircraft can operate. However, the FAA does not own the airspace below those altitudes defined as navigable airspace.

What Do I Need to Know as a Drone Pilot?

One lengthy legal analysis suggests drone pilots have the right to fly their drones at 400 feet above private property. As you know, 400 feet is also the maximum altitude that drones may operate (with certain exceptions). Note: I couldn’t verify their 400-feet altitude spec, but offer this resource since it cites some good historical information. Whether you’re using 400 feet or 500 feet, current case law favors the property owner if a claim of trespass is made against the pilot.

Does this mean that if you’re doing commercial photography you’re at risk if your drone flies over an adjacent property? Maybe. However, proving loss of the owner’s “full enjoyment of their land” would be difficult if there’s no evidence of: (1) the drone is causing a nuisance: (2) being flown recklessly; or (3) violating your state’s privacy law. In our experience when flying our drone on commercial jobs, it’s very difficult to avoid flying over a neighbor’s private property. So when we’re on a job, we always have a copy of the owner’s (or agent’s) tasking and fly safe.

I’ve been approached by curious neighbors asking what I’m doing with my drone and have found that by explaining the tasking and showing them the drone’s video display it creates a lot of good will. First, they can see that the drone’s wide-angle camera makes it a poor platform for spying. Second, they think it’s very cool to learn about this kind of technology.

This is also a good time to hand out a business card. Sometimes curious neighbors may have a good question down the road, such as “Can I hire you to photograph my property?”

What About Public Lands, Such as the National Parks?

We covered this question in our blog posted on December 7, 2017 “Everything You Never Wanted To Know About Flying Your Drone in the National Parks.” The NPS Director’s Policy Memo 14-05 stated that aerial drones may not be operated from park property, but may be flown over park property (within the FAA’s Part 107 rules). Apparently, federally-owned land managers defer matters of airspace to the FAA.

Summary

Private property owners are within their rights to demand that drone pilots keep their drones away from their property lines. This is a request that responsible drone pilots should respect. Unless a lawful objection has been raised, whenever flying over private property always fly in a safe and professional manner. This will minimize your risk of an unpleasant confrontation and possible legal action.

Instant Photo and File Delivery, Update

We have improved our method to deliver your photo and video files, so this is an update to our blog “Instant Photo and File Delivery,” posted in March.

We Deliver Your Files via Google Drive

We Deliver Your Files via Google Drive

We Deliver Your Photos and Videos Fast!

Often, our clients are on site so when we finish our aerial drone photography session we copy the files to the client’s computer or deliver them on a USB thumb drive.

When the client is not on site, we deliver their files within two business days using our Google Drive account. The process is easy and no software needs to be installed by the client. We send a link via e-mail and the client simply clicks on the link to arrive at a shared folder where they can view and download their files.

Does Google Drive Work For Smart Phones and Tablets?

We haven’t found a platform yet that doesn’t work with G-Drive! Desktop computers seem to be a little easier to work with for most people, but G-Drive can also be used with smart phones and tablets. Although we haven’t tested all of the devices out there, we have been successful with the latest Android and iOS operating systems.

Android

Click on the link in our e-mail and the G-Drive folder should appear. Select the files and then download. The files will appear in your download folder and can be viewed or copied from there.

iOS

Click on the link in our e-mail and the G-Drive should appear. Select the file to view, then save to your file system. You may have to save your files one at a time.

Note: Earlier versions of iOS may give you access to the device’s local file system. Our iPad 9.7 Pro is running iOS v12, which makes it much more difficult to save files to the device’s local file system. The Apple way is to save your files to “My Drive” which means saving to your account on iCloud, DropBox, Google Drive, etc. If someone finds a better way, then please send me a comment.

What Should I Expect To Pay For Aerial Drone Photography Services?

Let’s Start With Some of the Costs of Running a Business . . .

The Business Part of Aerial Drone Photography

The Business Aspect of Aerial Drone Photography

. . . specifically, our drone photography business. There are many operating costs spread across aerial photography operations. They include: drone hardware, accessories, digital camera, camera glide, desktop computer, laptop, tablet, software, office expenses, Internet access, desk phone, mobile phone, aviation liability insurance, FAA certification, transportation, accounting, banking, taxes, etc. These costs are spread across all of our services.

Is a Drone Shoot that Complicated?

We go through a lot of effort to deliver results so you don’t have to deal with these burdens. A hobbyist can go out and buy a drone for less than $500 and then go into “business.” However, that is where the similarity ends. A professional drone operation is so much more than that, so let me explain some of the preparations that go into every drone photography session:

  1. The first step is receiving the task from our client. Through phone conversations and e-mail, we learn about the location and type of photography services desired. (Photography in this article includes videography.)
  2. From there, we look up the location on Google Maps; then check against the FAA’s restricted flight zones. We can fly in certain areas, but others are off limits for drones. Please read our blog.
  3. We then hand-chart the flight requirements onto a hard copy from Google Maps. Tools include self-developed programs to calculate altitudes, speeds, camera tilt angles, fields of view, etc. We know how to translate the client’s requirements into drone commands and can visualize what the camera’s field of view will look like. We’re good at this, very good. Usually, we get our shots on the first try!
  4. Flight requirements are then entered into drone flight programs. We use several, and select the appropriate program for the mission. Some examples: videography, surveying, mapping, etc. Programmed drone flights provide smooth, repeatable missions. This is particularly useful if the client wants us to fly the same mission again, such as for progress reports or seasonal changes.
  5. Driving time to the client’s site is one of our major cost drivers. We need to charge for extra driving time outside our service area.
  6. On site, we look over the terrain for obstacles that may pose a hazard to our drone, such as trees, power lines, light poles, water towers, etc.
  7. The fun part, flying the drone, goes relatively quickly. The preparation steps above help to ensure a successful mission; while collecting the required photography takes less than 20 minutes.
  8. If the client is on site, we download the photography to their computer or give them their files on a USB thumb drive. Otherwise, we upload their files within 24 hours to a cloud service and send them a link. We operate a fee-for-service business, and deliver unlimited copyright with our products.
  9. Returning to the office, we download the files to a desktop computer and back them up onto a storage server. Periodically, we back up client files to BluRay disks and retain them for several years.
  10. Of course, collecting our fees, processing credit cards, accounting, paying taxes, sending receipts, logging flights, etc., all add to the time commitment.

Just a Quick Note on Postprocessing

If the client has asked for postprocessing services, we have a number of high-end desktop programs for photography, videography, and mapping. We’re experts with this software, taking the uncertainty out of the equation and delivering products that meet or exceed the client’s expectations. Examples of our postprocessing products can be found on our Portfolio page.

So, Just How Much Time Do You Spend on a Standard Drone Shoot?

Six hours, which typically breaks down into thirds: (1) Client communications; (2) Mission planning; and (3) Executing the mission. Compared to most other skilled trades, our prices are very reasonable. In the end, we’re in business to earn money, but it just comes down to the fact that we love to fly!

Zoom-in With a Fixed Lens Camera

Zooming In With Your Drone's Fixed Camera Lens

Zoom-in With Your Drone’s Fixed Camera Lens

At one time or another, everyone has had situations where zooming in on a video clip adds that finishing touch. Whether it’s for effect or for greater stand-off distance, the convenience of camera zoom takes your photography to the professional level.

In this blog, I’ll show you how to get Full High Definition (1080p) results at a zoom factor of 1.4x using a fixed-lens camera. This is good information for venues like sporting events and weddings, which can be recorded from the air but at a great enough distance so the drone’s presence has minimal notice. For more information on camera resolution please read my blog Setting Up Your Aerial Drone Camera.

Do I Need an Expensive High-End Drone and Camera?

Although that would be one way to get zoom capability, it can be a very expensive investment. But, let’s look at just one of many high-end drone/camera solutions:

For a modest investment of $5,000 you can purchase a DJI Inspire 2 drone, Zenmuse X5S camera, and Lumix 14-42mm zoom lens and the results will be quite professional. The Lumix lens gives you the standard camera focal length equivalent of 28-84mm. So, with 50mm as the standard for zero magnification, this camera has a zoom range of 0.6x wide angle to 1.7x telephoto. Remember these numbers.

Is There a Less Expensive Alternative?

There’s another solution that is far less expensive and provides excellent results. Many drones on the market can record Cinema 4K video, which has a resolution of 4096×2160 pixels. However, most users are satisfied with a Full HD resolution of 1920×1080 pixels.

What these numbers mean is that to get a digital zoom capability, you can record video in Cinema 4K mode, which leaves plenty of resolution to render any portion of the frame in Full HD. Rendering the video is done in post-processing, where video clips are transformed into the finished video.

For example, we can use our drone to record the desired scene in C4K mode. We start with the equivalent wide angle focal length of the camera’s lens, which is 35mm (0.7x). Using post-processing software, as much or as little of the C4K image can be cropped for the desired magnification. So, when your video is captured in C4K, you can select a crop “window” of up to 50% and render your new “zoomed-in” video in beautiful FHD. In other words, you get a full-definition 1920×1080 pixels! For this level of cropping, you achieve a zoom factor of 1.4x, equivalent to a 70mm telephoto lens.

Compared with the $5,000 solution, which zooms 0.6x to 1.7x, this digital zoom technique gets you 0.7x to 1.4x.

Any More Slick Ideas?

Two for sure . . .

  1. If you want even more zoom, just crop to get the desired magnification. There’s no limit to how much you can crop, though you will start to see the results of lower resolution. For example, you can crop at 25%, which gives you a zoom factor of 2.8x (140mm telephoto) but the resulting FHD video will display a lower resolution of 1024×540 pixels.
  2. Any method of zoom will increase the image’s sensitivity to camera movement. So a small and acceptable level of vibration at 0.7x may be objectionable at 1.4x. Unwanted vibration can be minimized in post-processing using image stabilization. For more information please read my blog Video Production and Post-Processing.

At FAD-Photo, we use the DJI Phantom 4 Professional V2, which provides a highly stable platform capable of stunning high definition photographs and videos. We have mastered the art of taking C4K videos and using our post-processing software to minimize vibration and render FHD videos.

We deliver the results you would expect from a professional aerial drone photography service! For more information, please refer to our Aerial Drone Photography and Video Services page.

Flying Aerial Drones At Night Is NOT Permitted By The FAA

Flying Your Aerial Drone At Night Is Not Permitted (Without Waiver) By The FAA

Flying Your Aerial Drone At Night Is Not Permitted (Without Waiver) By The FAA

Your drone lights up like a Christmas tree at night, but does that mean you can legally fly your aerial drone at night? Some drone pilots think yes, but I haven’t found justification for night flying in the USA without an FAA waiver.

This is another of my blogs where the FAA’s rules are straightforward. You can avoid a lot of boring reading if you will just take my word to fly your aerial drone in daylight conditions unless you receive a waiver from the FAA.

Let’s find out what the FAA has to say about night flying:

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) rules are found in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) which are federal laws. Those that apply to this topic include:

Title 14 CFR 107.29  Small UAS Daylight Operation.

(a) No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft system during night.

(b) No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft system during periods of civil twilight unless the small unmanned aircraft has lighted anti-collision lighting visible for at least 3 statute miles . . .

(1) Except for Alaska, a period of time that begins 30 minutes before official sunrise and ends at official sunrise.

(2) Except for Alaska, a period of time that begins at official sunset and ends 30 minutes after official sunset.

Reading this excerpt from the rules, the FAA is clear that Aerial Drones shall not be flown at night. However, flying during periods of civil twilight is permitted as long as collision-avoidance lighting requirements are met. Of note, the LED lights on your DJI drone are nowhere near the intensity to qualify for twilight flying; see line (b) above.

The FAA may issue a WAIVER for night flying

Pilots who wish to fly at night may request a certificate of waiver from the FAA’s Administrator. The waiver request must contain a complete description of the proposed operation and justification that establishes that the operation can safely be conducted under the terms of a certificate of waiver.

14 CFR 107.200  Waiver Policy and Requirements:

(a) The Administrator may issue a certificate of waiver authorizing a deviation from any regulation specified in §107.205 if the Administrator finds that a proposed small UAS operation can safely be conducted under the terms of that certificate of waiver.

Of note 14 CFR 107.205 specifically includes flying at night. Your waiver application is submitted to the office of the FAA’s Administrator in Washington, DC.

Can I Fly at Night Under the Model Aircraft Rules of Part 101?

There are some remote pilots that have stated the requirements for 14 CFR 101.41 will allow them to operate at night. In my view, this is a stretch of interpretation for most pilots.

The chapter that covers UAS’s, Part 107, specifically excludes aircraft that are qualified to fly under Part 101. In other words, you can’t use Part 101 rules to justify flying Part 107 aircraft.

Why? Part 101 addresses Moored Balloons, Kites, Amateur Rockets, Unmanned Free Balloons, and Certain Model Aircraft (emphasis mine).  Subparagraph 101.41 addresses the Special Rule for Model Aircraft, which some pilots have stated online justify flying their aerial drones at night.

First, there are several requirements that must be met if your aerial drone is to be considered a model aircraft:

  • You may fly for hobby or recreation ONLY
  • You must register your model aircraft
  • You must fly within visual line-of-sight
  • You must follow community-based safety guidelines and fly within the programming of a nationwide community-based organization

That’s it. Night flying is not explicitly permitted in the subpart for “Certain Model Aircraft”.

Remote Pilots that are flying commercial off-the-shelf aerial drones, such as those manufactured by DJI, will have a hard time convincing the FAA that you qualify under Part 101 rules.  Even if your drone was to qualify under Part 101, the relevant subparts that allow night flying don’t apply to model aircraft. They apply to other aircraft categories, for example:

14 CFR 101.17

No person may operate a moored balloon or kite, between sunset and sunrise unless the balloon or kite, and its mooring lines, are lighted so as to give a visual warning equal to that required for obstructions to air navigation in the FAA publication “Obstruction Marking and Lighting”.

14 CFR 101.25

When operating Class 2-High Power Rockets or Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets, you must comply with the General Operating Limitations of §101.23. In addition, you must not operate Class 2-High Power Rockets or Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets . . .

(d) Between sunset and sunrise without prior authorization from the FAA . . .

14 CFR 101.35

No person may operate an unmanned free balloon unless . . .

(b) No person may operate an unmanned free balloon below 60,000 feet standard pressure altitude between sunset and sunrise . . .

None of these sections (17, 25, and 35) should be used to justify flying aerial drones at night.

Conclusion

The FAA is very clear in Part 107 that flying aerial drones at night is not permitted unless the pilot has received a waiver. Using Part 101 is not a good interpretation of the meaning and intent of the FAA’s rules. However, there are those venues where flying at night is permitted and waiverable. Some that come to mind include certain sporting events, law enforcement, and fire and rescue.

Another resource that I’ve cited before is Drone Law Attorney “Rupprecht Law.”

Please read their legal opinion on How to Fly Your Drone at Night.

Instant Photo and Video File Delivery

FAD-Photo Delivers Your Photo and Video Files via Dropbox for Super Fast Service

We Use Dropbox for Instant File Delivery

FAD-Photo uses Dropbox.com for instant photo and video file delivery. We upload your files to our account and send you a link so all you have to do is click on the link and then click the download button.

In some cases, you may have to wait up to 10 seconds for the download button to appear. When it does, then click to download the file to your computer or smart device.

When two or more files are delivered, we use 9Zip, a generic Windows 10 application. It combines your files into one “Zip” file and then we upload it to Dropbox. The Zip file you download will display like a folder in most operating systems. For example, with Windows 10 you can open, play, and copy your photo and video files to wherever you need them.

Do I Need to Install any Software for Dropbox or 9Zip?

No worries, you won’t need to install any software or set up your own account.

What is a Zip File?

Zip files make more efficient use of your computer’s storage space by reducing the file size and combining multiple files into one file. It works well and the process is lossless – that is, there’s no decrease in your photo’s or video’s quality. The good news is that you won’t have to install any software on your computer, tablet, or smart phone.

Once downloaded, your operating system will treat the zip file very similarly to a folder. Simply click on the zip file just like you would a folder. Your files can then be extracted (just right click) or individually copied to any location you desire. If you’re using Windows 10, you can view/play your files by clicking on them in the zip file. Many other operating systems work similarly.

What About My Tablet or Smart Phone?

Smart devices, such as Android, treat the Zip file a little differently. Use your file explorer to find the zip file, typically in the Download folder. Then select each file (or all) and extract them. Your files will be found in the Download folder and can be opened, played, and copied to wherever you need them. Apple devices running iOS use a similar process.

Everything You Never Wanted To Know About Flying Your Drone in the National Parks

USA National Park Service

National Park Service Policy On Aerial Drones

Flying aerial drones in the National Parks of the USA was outlawed in June 2014 by the Director of the National Park Service in his Policy Memorandum 14-05.

Several incidents led to this interim policy guidance, which supplements Title 36 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).  For example, I read reports about amateur drones harassing wildlife, interfering with search and rescue efforts, interfering with fighting forest fires, and in one case a drone that crashed into the Grand Prismatic Spring in Yellowstone National Park.

What You as a Drone Pilot Need to Know

Let’s just get down to the important stuff – what can they do to you if you get caught? Park Rangers are permitted by law to make arrests for violations, and if convicted a drone pilot faces fines and jail time.

So, where does it say that?  Title 36 CFR Part 1.5 and the Policy Memo provide the authority, and 36 CFR Part 1.3 states the penalties, which read: “shall be punished by a fine as provided by law, or imprisonment not exceeding 6 months, or both, and shall be adjudged to pay all costs of the proceedings.”  I’ve also heard of Park Rangers confiscating drones, but I haven’t seen a policy statement granting them that authority.

What parks are covered?  Title 36 covers all lands that fall under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service, including National Parks, National Military Parks, National Monuments, and Battlefield Sites.

Can I Fly Over Other Federal Lands?

Currently, my sources state that you can fly your drone over the National Forests and most lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management.  However, watch for changes in policy as lawmakers are crafting new rules regarding aerial drones.

Process for Permission

For most drone pilots, the bar is simply too high to get a waiver or what the National Park Service calls a Special Use Permit.  The NPS Policy Memorandum outlines the process in Exhibit B. Paraphrased, it states the Park’s Superintendent will receive a written request for proposed drone operations and endorse it up the chain of command to the Associate Director, Visitor and Resource Protection office in Washington, DC for approval.

Are There Any Workarounds?

Once your drone is airborne, your flight falls under FAA rules.  The NPS Policy Memo acknowledges this and states “Launching, landing, or operating an unmanned aircraft from or on lands and waters administered by the NPS is prohibited.”  However, under the FAQ section (no. 9), this prohibition is clarified with a very useful statement that aerial drone flights originating outside the park’s boundary ARE permitted to fly over national park lands (because they’re in the air space that falls under the jurisdiction of the FAA).  I will add that the wise drone pilot will fly strictly in accordance with the safety provisions of the FAA’s 14 CFR Part 107.

Fly Safe!

Traveling With Your Drone

What is the Best Way to Transport Your Drone and all of its Accessories?

The logistics of traveling with your drone on a vacation or business trip are simplified with a little preparation. I’ll outline battery bags, backpacks, and carrying cases in this article.  First, let’s cover the FAA’s position on those Lithium-Polymer (Li-Po) batteries:

Air Travel

FAA requirements (49 CFR 175.10(a)(18)) state that:

  • Each battery must have short circuit protection.
  • Spare batteries must be carried in the cabin (not checked).
  • For less than 100 Watt-Hours (W-Hr) per battery, there is no limit on the number for personal use. (With permission from the carrier, up to 2 batteries can be carried with up to 160 W-Hrs per battery.)

Notes:

  1. Always discharge your batteries to 10-15%.
  2. The W-Hr rating is typically stamped on the battery.  For older batteries, the FAA calculates the W-Hr rating by multiplying the battery’s voltage by its Amp-Hr rating.
  3. Some example batteries: Phantom 3 batteries are rated at 68 W-Hrs and Phantom 4 batteries are rated at 81 W-Hrs.

Battery bags

I recommend a Li-Po fire-resistant carrying bag, such as those made by Lipo Guard.  Not only a wise investment for traveling, it also provides a safe enclosure for charging.

How to select a backpack or carrying case:

Start with your drone’s dimensions, including all accessories that you plan to pack.  That will be your minimum requirement.  Your maximum requirement is the size restriction for your commercial carrier – typically an airline.  The restrictions I’ve come across:

  • Personal item dimensions:  maximum of 18x14x8 in  (typical for under the seat stowage). UPDATE – United Airlines’ stricter dimensions just went into effect: 17x10x9 in. Always check!
  • Carry-on bag dimensions:  maximum of 45 in L+W+H  (I’ve also seen 22x14x9).
  • Your carrier may charge a fee for a carry-on bag, but no one charges for personal items.

If you’re so inclined, then go with a hard case and check it through to your destination.  The advantage of a hard case is that everything is well-protected and much more accessible.  Some hard cases don’t even require you to remove the propellers; although I always do.  Checked bag max dimensions are typically 62 in L+W+H.  Checked bag fees may apply.

Once you’ve listed your requirements, it will be much easier to select a case that meets your needs and suits your style.  Personally, I prefer a hard case for travel by car and a compact (personal item size) backpack for travel by air.

Fly Safe!

The Exciting World of Panoramas

Fourteen Individual Photos Were “Stitched” to Make This 360-degree Wide-Angle Panorama

How often have you wished for a wider angle lens to capture your subject of interest? Or have you seen wide angle panoramas and thought to yourself “That’s cool, I wonder how they did that?” Let’s take a look at how to make panoramas that provide a poster-size photo of your subject or immerse yourself into a 360-degree wide-angle, or better yet a cylinder or sphere. Virtual immersion is some of the latest technology for real estate marketing, travel, and personal entertainment.

Rules for Panoramas

Depending on zoom setting, eight pictures should be sufficient for a 360-degree panorama. Do some test runs to practice your technique. The general idea is to take a series of horizontal pictures that overlap 10-20 percent. Ditto for vertical panos. Add a row of pictures above (horizon) and below (ground) for a larger panorama. And always:

  • Take pictures from one position (technically, the position of your lens)
  • Lock your camera’s exposure for all pictures

Making Your Panorama

The term for assembling the individual shots into a panorama is “stitching.” Basic stitching software includes Microsoft’s ICE (it’s free). For more professional results, programs such as PT GUI Pro automatically blend the images. Think of the blue sky that varies in intensity from shot to shot. Automatic blending provides a pleasant transition from lighter to darker shades of blue.

Can I Control Where The Stitches Are?

Good stitching software will give you control over where the images get stitched. Say you have 20 degrees of overlap, but an object is in motion in both images. For example, a car is in position A in one image and position B in the other image. You select which image to dominate through masking, and the other will disappear. As long as you have adequate overlap, the images can be successfully stitched.

Spherical Panoramas

Use the software’s “Layers” option to create the file set for a spherical projection. Then use Tools/Publish to Website, add these files and hit the convert button to build the web file set. Upload these files to a web folder and copy the link to the master file “name.htm”. (You will see a lot of image files, each with small portions of the pano; this is normal.) Insert the link wherever you desire and the spherical panorama will come up when viewed in your browser. Use your mouse to move around the pano. This is how the professionals do it for real estate portfolios, FaceBook, etc.

Here’s an example of a spherical panorama we made with 26 images: Monument Valley

Other Practical Uses

As I mentioned above, panoramas can be used to make super wide angle photos. If you can’t position yourself far enough away from your subject, then take multiple images of it and stitch them together. Do you have a large print or poster that’s too large for your scanner? Scan it in sections and stitch them together for a high-resolution image file that’s much better than taking a picture.

Fly Safe!