When you set up your aerial drone’s camera to take videos, the first thing you’ll want to do is to select the American standard of NTSC (National Television System Committee). Your other option is PAL (Phase Alternation by Line), which is more common in Europe, Asia, and Africa. A third standard known as SECAM is also common in Asia and Africa, and your drone may offer it as well. When in the USA, select NTSC. The main difference is frame rate where the American standard is based on 60 Hz and the European standard is based on 50 Hz.
Among your camera’s setting options, you’ll find video size, which allows you to select format and framerate. You can select from 4k for the Ultimate High Definition (think of Sony’s 4k digital cinema in your movie theater), 2.7k and 1080p also known as Full High Definition, and 720p also known as High Definition.
I recommend setting your video to 1080p, which has a frame resolution of 1920×1080 pixels, and is standard among televisions and computers. Unless you have a requirement to use higher resolution, then 1080p is the standard for you. Higher resolutions, such as 2702×1520 and 4096×2160 are gorgeous if you have the hardware to play them. Their downside is the increased amount of time required to render in video editing software. Another downside is stutter when playing them on less than state-of-the-art hardware.
Recently I compared several of the UHD and FHD video formats and found that my computer monitor displayed all of them, but stuttered when the source was 2.7k or higher. I couldn’t tell any difference in resolution with the 1080p, but that would be expected with a 1080p monitor. There was also some stutter when I played a 1080p video at 60 frames per second.
For most videography applications, I recommend using 1080p at 30 frames per second. Eventually the market will move to 2.7k and 4k resolutions, so you should be ready to switch when that time comes.
Common formats for aerial drones include 12MP (4000×3000) and 20MP (5280×3956), which are sufficient resolution for super fine-grain pictures. I have found that the resolution of the sensor is typically greater than the limitation placed on it by the camera’s optics.
Check it out for yourself by blowing up an image in your favorite photo viewing software. You’ll see the image is blurred from pixel to pixel, which was caused by the optics, not the sensor. This is why you want the most direct path for light to enter the image sensor. Due to their small size, these cameras (and their filters) pick up finger prints and smudges that will reduce the resolution of your camera.
Three-byte color granularity is known as 24-bit color because there are 8 bits per primary color. It’s also known as “True Color” or “16.8 million colors” since 2 raised to the 24th power is 16.8 million. Using our drone’s 12MP image as an example, the resulting image file is 36 million bytes (or 34MB). Fortunately, cameras compress the images and reduce their file size to perhaps a tenth of their original size. You’re already familiar with the common file compression standard created by the Joint Photographic Experts Group and known as JPG.
A drawback of the JPG compression standard is that certain pixels are selectively thrown out. The loss in fidelity is usually negligible. However, the loss is not reversible so some image quality is permanently lost.
For optimum results, professionals use the camera’s raw mode, which compresses image files without throwing out any pixels. The resulting file sizes are 2-3 times the size of a JPG file, but there’s no sacrifice in image quality. DJI’s drone cameras use Adobe’s Digital Negative (DNG) format for their raw mode.
For most photography applications, I recommend using the JPG format due to its high popularity. For those special shots (or client requirements) then select raw mode.